The Indus Valley Civilization, best known as Harappan Civilization was discovered in 1920. The sites found in Sind, Baluchistan, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Kutch, Kathiawad and Badakshan lay completely forgotten to the modern world until its discovery.

Dated from 2600 BC to 2000 to 1500 BC, it belonged to the Bronze Age. A place that held a population of around five million, it was situated by the Indus river. It is named after the Indus Valley where its remains were discovered. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were the largest Indus Valley sites to be discovered


A full-fledged civilization, it had well planned cities with social hierarchies, advanced urban culture and sophisticated technology. There were efficient municipal governing bodies that gave a lot of importance to hygiene, so much so that the drainage and sewage systems of those times were much more advanced than many of the contemporary urban areas.

urban civilization

Its economy depended on trade that was facilitated by advanced transport system. Bullock carts and boats of those times are similar to the ones we use today.  A canal network used to supply water to land and crops was also discovered.  The city had well planned construction keeping its geographic and climatic conditions in mind. Its urban planning, a well-defined drainage system, water supply as well as baked brick houses boast of how ahead of its time this civilization was

Art and craft:

Various sculptures, bronze pottery, gold jewelry, detailed figurines in bronze as well as terracotta were discovered. Terracotta statues of dogs, cows, bears and monkeys and dancing girls created in anatomical details belie the fact that these belonged to a bygone era.

Crafts like bead making, ceramics, shell working were practiced and used to create bangles, necklaces and other jewelry. They also made use of make-up and combs back then.

Idols, musical instruments like the harp, toys including the cubical dice were discovered.


The Indus Valley Civilization with its advanced planning and technology can be considered an urban civilization way ahead of its time. A system that could give the contemporary society a lesson or two on planning